Image Source: Getty / Iryna Veklich
Retinol, a vitamin A derivative, turbo charges skin-cell turnover to minimize the appearance of fine lines, pores, pigmentation, and more. It works hard and fast to reduce breakouts and knock years off your complexion. Vitamin C, on the other hand, is a potent antioxidant that protects and repairs skin cells whilst simultaneously tackling fine lines, brightening dark spots, and leaving skin glowing.
Both sound good, right? Trouble is you that you can, in fact, have too much of a good thing, as overdoing it on retinol and vitamin C can lead to redness and sensitivity.
Luckily, you don't have to choose one over the other. You do, however, need to be strategic with your application. We called on skin-care experts to reveal exactly what each ingredient does, and how to incorporate both vitamin C and retinol into your routine for the best skin-smoothing, clearing, and brightening results without irritation.
What Are the Benefits of Retinol?
"Retinol is a form of vitamin A. Other forms you may see are retinoic acid and retinaldehyde, which are both super strong, or retinyl palmitate and retinol esters, which are weaker," said skin-care biochemist Nausheen Qureshi.
"I personally call it 'CPR for the skin.' Retinol resuscitates and regenerates skin cells, keeping them active and preventing premature cell death. It not only refreshes the skin's appearance, but it also works on signs of aging and unwanted texture."
Retinol should be used only at night, and you absolutely need to apply sunscreen the next morning.
"Skin naturally regenerates at night and retinol supports this natural process by promoting cell turnover," Qureshi explained, "while the fresh skin cells are more susceptible to sun damage so need protection during the day."
Not sure which retinol to buy? While retinol has typically been an ingredient prescribed by dermatologists, nowadays you can get good quality, effective retinol products over the counter.
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What Are the Benefits of Vitamin C?
"Vitamin C is a potent, powerhouse ingredient that brightens skin and boosts collagen production. It also contains a property that helps to lighten dark spots and hyperpigmentation," said Dr. Toni Phillips, group clinical director at DestinationSkin. "A quality antioxidant (vitamin C is usually found in combination with other antioxidants) protects skin cells from free radicals. Free radicals are tiny molecules that can attack the cells and reduce their ability to function optimally," which results in your skin look to lose its natural radiance and look dull and tired.
"It is a very unstable ingredient and oxidizes very quickly, so it is usually best not to go for a product with straight vitamin C in it as this won't survive long," added Qureshi. "It's more potent in its ester forms and in its encapsulated forms."
While retinol has a reputation for being potentially irritating to skin, vitamin C can cause a reaction, too. Alexander Johnston, general manager of John Bell & Croyden, London's Luxury Pharmacy, explained that "vitamin C is a potent, active skin-care ingredient, so it can cause a reaction on sensitive or redness-prone skin, especially in higher concentrations. However, if it is introduced slowly into your routine, your skin will adapt over time. As with all active products, patch testing is always recommended."
Is There a Benefit to Using Both Retinol and Vitamin C?
"Vitamins A and C work incredibly well together," explained Qureshi. "Whilst vitamin A regenerates and keeps the cells alive, vitamin C protects them from free radical damage and brightens the surface of the skin. So not only do you get a better texture and more voluminous facial tissue, but you also get bright and radiant-looking skin. They are a great tag team." As long as you don't layer them, that is.
Image Source: Getty / Anna Efetova
Do Retinol and Vitamin C Interact Well If Applied Together?
"No, not usually, because retinol is oil-soluble and vitamin C is water soluble," said Qureshi. "They are also both acids, so it can be quite dangerous to apply together. Dr. Phillips agreed, adding that "there is no real benefit in using too many products at the same time, so the idea is to have a simple program using the correct products in a way that the skin is supported, corrected, and protected." All this is to say please don't layer retinol and vitamin C, as the side effects could be bad, and probably quite painful.
What Is the Best Way to Use Both Retinol and Vitamin C?
"I usually recommend people of all ages to use an antioxidant (vitamin C) every morning after cleansing," said Dr. Phillips. "You may find products with varied percentages of vitamin C, but dry skin types should use the lower percentages, and the oiler skin types will respond to products with a higher vitamin C percentage."
For those under the age of 30, an antioxidant product can be used twice a day — in the morning as well as in the evening after cleansing. For the over 30s (and under 30s if you have extremely oily skin and struggle with spots or uncontrollable breakouts), an evening retinol is recommended instead of vitamin C, according to Dr. Phillips. "Natural collagen production begins to slow in our mid-20s and the signs of this start to show in the late 20s [to] early 30s. This is exactly when a retinol product should be added, in the evening after cleansing," she said.
"Retinol is a powerful active product so it needs to be introduced gently," Dr. Phillips continued. "I usually recommend starting to use it two to three times a week, increasing to every second evening and after six to eight weeks trying to use it every night. Some people will experience reactions such as dryness, redness, and peeling. These are all completely normal for the first two to three months when starting retinol. However, as most of us don't like these reactions, the gradual protocol should help to minimize this until we are comfortable and start to see the skin improve as a result."