During the 19th century, a widespread affliction of women was the now-defunct hysteria. At the time, female hysteria was believed to afflict a quarter of all women, and it included sexual fantasies, pelvic heaviness, and vaginal lubrication. Today we'd call those symptoms of being sexually repressed. It could be cured only by a doctor-administered "paroxysm," otherwise known as an orgasm. The result was an epidemic of hand cramps among doctors, leading to the invention of the vibrator. One of the inaugural vibrators was a steam-powered device called the "Manipulator," developed by American physician George Taylor in 1869. Then in 1880, Dr. Joseph Mortimer Granville patented the first electromechanical vibrator (inspiring the 2011 film Hysteria).