Italy: Neapolitan Pizza
When in Rome (or Naples), it's almost irresponsible not to enjoy an authentic Neapolitan pizza. There are some pretty strict rules when it comes to Neapolitan pizza (there's even an association dedicated to it, Associazione Vera Pizza Napoletana). The ingredients used are simple, uncomplicated, and out-of-this-world delicious.
More suggestions: Pasta, pesto, salumi, and cannoli