Pfizer Seeks FDA Approval For RSV Vaccine as Virus Continues to Spread — What to Know

The cold and flu season lingers on for both adults and children. The "tridemic" or "tripledemic" — created by simultaneous surges of COVID, the flu, and respiratory infection, commonly known as RSV — has made it particularly challenging since late fall.

In October 2022, 76 percent of pediatric beds were occupied due to this influx of infections, according to NBC News. And on Nov. 14, 2022, California confirmed its first death this season of a child under age 5 due to the flu and RSV, via a statement from the California Department of Public Health. What's more, children haven't been the only ones impacted by RSV this season. Between 6,000 and 10,000 older adults die every year from RSV, and 60,000 to 120,000 of them are hospitalized due to the infection, according to the CDC.

The unprecedented spike in RSV the past couple of months has taken many by surprise. The good news? It appears help is on the way. Pfizer has developed a vaccine designed to protect newborns against RSV by vaccinating a pregnant person, who passes on protective antibodies to the baby. The FDA has accepted the application and could approve it by August, according to a company statement.

But with the illness still making its rounds, knowing what to look out for can save a life. Keep reading to learn more about how to prevent RSV and how to treat it.

What Is RSV?

Respiratory syncytial virus is a common respiratory virus that can cause mild, cold-like symptoms. The recovery time is typically a week or two and most infants will get it before the age of 2, per the CDC. But certain children are more likely to develop severe symptoms. In typically healthy adults, for example, RSV might look like a nasty cold, but for premature infants and older adults it can be a serious threat.

In high-risk babies — such as babies born prematurely, children under 2 born with heart or lung disease, infants with weakened immune systems, and children 8-10 weeks old — RSV can become a much more serious infection. Symptoms of RSV can include wheezing or difficulty breathing, decreased or no appetite, decreased fluid intake, sneezing and coughing, runny nose, and fever, according to the CDC. Severe cases of RSV can cause bronchiolitis or pneumonia, and require oxygen and intubation.

What Are RSV Symptoms?

Those infected with RSV usually show symptoms of a mild, cold-like illness within 4 to 6 days after becoming infected. But the type of symptoms to look out for can vary depending on age. Below are the common symptoms of RSV broken down by age, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

RSV Symptoms in Adults and Children Over 5

  • Runny nose
  • Decrease in appetite
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Fever
  • Wheezing

Some adults and children over 5 may not experience any symptoms of RSV or the symptoms will be very mild. However, if your child is having trouble breathing, the Cleveland Clinic advises that you head to the emergency room. And if you're experiencing RSV symptoms, particularly if you're over 65, have a compromised immune system, or have a heart or lung condition, call your healthcare provider.

RSV Symptoms in Toddlers

Toddlers, or children ages 1 to 3, will experience similar symptoms as adults: runny nose, coughing, coughing, sneezing, and decreased appetite. They may also be less interested in playing, have trouble swallowing and breathe faster than they normally do.

RSV Symptoms in Babies

For very young infants (those under 6 months old), it can be tricky to spot the signs of RSV because the symptoms tend to be more mild, including:

  • Irritability
  • Decreased activity or appetite
  • Difficulty breathing

If your baby or toddler is exhibiting these severe RSV symptoms below, the Cleveland Clinic advises you visit the emergency room or call 911:

  • Noisy breathing
  • Flaring of nostrils with every breath.
  • Blue or gray color lips, mouth and fingernails.
  • Belly breathing or "caving in" of the chest in the form of an upside-down "V" starting under the neck.
  • Short, shallow, slow or rapid breathing.
  • Pauses while breathing.

RSV Prevention

Like with the common cold or COVID-19, washing your hands is an essential preventative measure, according to the Mayo Clinic. Avoiding exposure, keeping things clean by disinfecting surfaces, refraining from sharing glasses, and washing toys regularly are also listed as best practices. The Mayo Clinic also encourages parents not to smoke, as "babies who are exposed to tobacco smoke have a higher risk of getting RSV and potentially more-severe symptoms." If you do smoke, it's advised that you do it away from your baby — never in the house or car.

There's also a protective medication available, called palivizumab (Synagis). It's given in the form of a shot and designed for children under 2 who are at high risk of serious complications from RSV.

Is There a Vaccine For RSV?

Both Pfizer and Moderna are working on new vaccines to protect against RSV. The FDA accepted Pfizer's application for review on Feb. 21, and if approved, it would be the first vaccine administered to pregnant people to protect against RSV in infants from birth through six months. The company said the vaccine has also shown promising data in adults 65 and older, which means it could potentially help prevent RSV in older adults as well.

On Jan. 17, Moderna announced that the RSV vaccine it's working on has shown to be 84 percent effective at preventing at least two or more symptoms in older adults (age 60 and older), per CNBC. The new RSV shots reportedly use the same mRNA technology as Moderna's COVID vaccines.

There's currently no FDA-approved vaccine on the market for RSV. So until those are available, it's important to be very attentive to the signs and symptoms of RSV. If an infant has symptoms of a cold that aren't improving, take them to the doctor immediately.

RSV Treatment

Most RSV infections go away on their own in less than two weeks, the CDC says. There's no current treatment plan to fight the infection, but for adults, you can relieve symptoms by drinking fluids to prevent dehydration and taking over-the-counter fever reducers and pain relievers. For children, talk to your child's healthcare provider first before giving them nonprescription cold medicines, and never give aspirin to children. In more severe cases when there is difficulty breathing, go to the hospital immediately. Oxygen or intubation may be necessary.

— Additional reporting by Alexis Jones