Kamala Khan made her first appearance in the comics in a 2013 issue of "Captain Marvel." In 2014, the "Ms. Marvel" comic series had its very first issue. The character, who's the first Muslim Marvel character to ever headline their own book, was created by Marvel editors Sana Amanat and Stephen Wacker, writer G. Willow Wilson, and artists Adrian Alphona and Jamie McKelvie.
In the comics, Carol Danvers, aka Captain Marvel (Brie Larson in the MCU), used to go by the name Ms. Marvel. In 2012, Marvel Comics had Carol take on the mantle of Captain Marvel as it launched the character into a new era. So when Kamala, a Captain Marvel superfan, ends up with powers of her own, she uses her idol's old alias.
From the first trailer, it seems the MCU version of Kamala gets her powers in a different way than her comics' counterpart (whose powers are activated by a cosmic fog) and might even have different abilities.